Increasing waste and pollution is a regrettable consequence of development throughout the Pacific. This problem is exacerbated by the limitations in lands and technology available to Pacific Island Countries to effectively manage waste and control pollution. Waste is both an economic as well as an environmental issue. Economic activities and urbanization often generate pollution to air, water and land, and consume finite resources that may threaten people, ecosystem services, and the surrounding environment. Conversely, waste management and pollution control also offer a significant opportunity to invest – its high visibility means that any improvements quickly become apparent. Managing resources efficiently through collaborative partnerships can forge lasting partnerships between Governments, businesses and local communities. To address problems associated with waste and pollution, the World Bank, through its third environment and social standard [ESS3] has set out requirements to address resource efficiency and pollution prevention and management throughout the project’s life cycle consistent with global international industry practice [GIIP]. In setting the context for this module, learning will be delivered to explain guidance notes for resource efficiency and preventative management in key areas of ESS3 as well as drawing on examples from water and sanitation projects across the Pacific.